Saturday, June 20, 2009

Creamed Mushrooms

First wash them thoroughly in cold water, peel them and remove the stems, then cut them in halves or quarters, according to their size.

Melt one tablespoon of butter in a saucepan over the fire then add the mushrooms and let them simmer slowly in the butter for five minutes; season them well with salt and black pepper, freshly ground. After seasoning, add a gill of cream and while it is heating sift one tablespoon of flour in a bowl, add one-half pint of milk. Stir these briskly till flour is all dissolved, then pour it gradually in the saucepan with the mushrooms and cream, stirring the whole constantly to keep it from lumping. Let it just bubble a moment, then add another tablespoon of butter and pour the creamed mushrooms over hot buttered toast on a hot platter and serve.

Cooked like this mushrooms have more nutritive value than beef.

Saturday, February 28, 2009

Jewish Recipes: Hungarian Goulash

Have two pounds of beef cut into one inch squares. Dredge in flour and fry until brown. Cover with water and simmer for two hours; the last half-hour add one tablespoon of salt and one-eighth of a teaspoon of pepper.

Make a sauce by cooking one cup of tomatoes and one stalk of celery cut in small pieces, a bay leaf and two whole cloves, for twenty-five minutes; rub through a sieve, add to stock in which meat was cooked. Thicken with four tablespoons of flour moistened with two tablespoons of water.

Serve meat with cooked diced potatoes, carrots, and green and red peppers cut in strips.

Thursday, February 26, 2009

Fillet of Sole a la Mouquin

Thoroughly wash and pick over a pound of spinach, put it over the fire with no more water than clings to the leaves and cook for ten minutes; at the end of that time drain the spinach and chop it fine. Have ready thin fillets of flounder, halibut, or whitefish. Cover them with acidulated warm water--a slice of lemon in the water is all that is wanted, and add a slice of onion, a sprig of parsley and a bit of bay leaf.

Simmer for ten minutes and drain. Put the minced spinach into the bottom of the buttered baking-dish, arrange the fillets on it, cover with a cream sauce to which a tablespoon of grated cheese has been added, and brown in the oven.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Jewish Recipes: Gefillte Fish

Prepare trout, pickerel or pike in the following manner: After the fish has been scaled and thoroughly cleaned, remove all the meat that adheres to the skin, being careful not to injure the skin; take out all the meat from head to tail, cut open along the backbone, removing it also; but do not disfigure the head and tail; chop the meat in a chopping bowl, then heat about a quarter of a pound of butter in a spider, add two tablespoons chopped parsley, and some soaked white bread; remove from the fire and add an onion grated, salt, pepper, pounded almonds, the yolks of two eggs, also a very little nutmeg grated. Mix all thoroughly and fill the skin until it looks natural. Boil in salt water, containing a piece of butter, celery root, parsley and an onion; when done remove from the fire and lay on a platter. The fish should be cooked for one and one-quarter hours, or until done. Thicken the sauce with yolks of two eggs, adding a few slices of lemon.

This fish may be baked but must be rolled in flour and dotted with bits of butter.

Vanilla Ice Cream, No. 1

Take one pint of milk, two cups of sugar, one large tablespoon of flour rubbed smooth in cold milk, two eggs beaten light, one teaspoon of vanilla extract, and one quart of sweet cream, well beaten. Heat the milk in a double boiler, and when it is at boiling point add the flour, eggs and one cup of sugar. Cook about twenty minutes, stirring very often. Let the mixture get cold, then add the remaining sugar and the vanilla and cream, and freeze. A more novel flavoring is made with a mixture of vanilla, lemon and almond extracts.

The quantities given in this recipe make about two quarts of ice cream.

Chicken Casserole

Bake chicken in covered casserole until nearly tender, then add three potatoes cut in dice; boil small pieces of carrots, green peas, and small white onions--each to be boiled separately. Just before serving, thicken gravy with a teaspoon of flour mixed with a half cup of soup stock or water. Season to taste and place vegetables around the dish.

Friday, February 20, 2009

Onion Soup

Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoon of butter until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoons of flour and stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croutons.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Mulligatawny Soup

Add to three quarts of liquor, in which fowls have been boiled, the following vegetables: three onions, two carrots, and one head of celery cut in small dice. Keep the kettle over a high heat until soup reaches the boiling point; then place where it will simmer for twenty-five minutes. Add one tablespoon of curry powder, one tablespoon of flour mixed together; add to the hot soup and cook five minutes. Pass through a sieve.

Serve with small pieces of chicken or veal cut in it.

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Scalloped Mushrooms

Sauté mushrooms and prepare two cups of white sauce for one pound of mushrooms, add one teaspoon of onion juice. Into a well-greased baking dish place one-quarter of the mushroom, then one-quarter of the sauce, and one-quarter of the bread crumbs, continue in this way until all the sauce is used, pour one cup of cream over this and sprinkle the remaining crumbs over the top. Bake fifteen minutes in a moderate oven, or until the crumbs are browned.

Okra Gumbo Soup (Southern)

Take one quart of ripe tomatoes, stew with one quart of okra, cut into small rings. Put this on to boil with about two quarts or water and a piece of soup meat (no bone), chop up an onion, a carrot and a sprig of parsley, add this to the soup. Fricassee one chicken with some rice, dish up with the soup, putting a piece of chicken and one tablespoon of rice into each soup plate before adding the soup. Let the soup simmer four or five hours; season with salt and pepper. A little corn and Lima beans may be added; they should be cooked with the soup for several hours. Cut the soup meat into small cubes and leave in the soup to serve.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

Individual Apple Dumplings

Butter six muffin rings and set them on a shallow agate pan which has been well buttered. Fill the rings with sliced apples. Make a dough of one and one-half cups of pastry flour sifted several times with one-half teaspoon of salt and three level teaspoons of baking-powder. Chop into the dry ingredients one-fourth of a cup of shortening, gradually add three-fourths of a cup of milk or water. Drop the dough on the apples on the rings. Let bake about twenty minutes. With a spatula remove each dumpling from the ring, place on dish with the crust side down.

Serve with cream and sugar, hard sauce or with a fruit sauce.

Mother's Dill Pickles

Examine the cucumbers carefully, discard all that are soft at the ends, and allow them to lay in water overnight. In the morning drain, and dry them with a clean towel. Then put them in a wooden pail or jar, along with the dill, putting first a layer of dill at the bottom then a layer of cucumbers, a few whole peppers, then a layer of dill again, and so on until all are used, and last lay a clean, white cloth on top, then a plate and a stone to give it weight, so that the pickles will be kept under the brine.

To a peck of cucumbers use about a cup of salt. Dissolve the salt in enough cold water to cover them. You may add one or two tablespoons of vinegar to the brine. If the cucumbers are small, and if they are kept in a warm place, they will be ready for the table in five or six days. If salt pickles have turned out to be too salty, just pour off the old brine and wash the pickles and then examine them closely, and if they are spoiled throw them away. Lay those that are sound in a clean jar and pour over them a weak solution of salt water, into which put a dash of vinegar. Always examine the pickles weekly.

Take off the cloth, wash it, and remove all the scum that adheres to the pail, and lay a clean cloth over the pickles again. Do not use more than a cup of salt in the new brine, which must be thoroughly dissolved.

It is a good way to make use of pickles in winter that have become too salty for ordinary use.

Monday, February 9, 2009

Kischkes (Russian Style)

Buy beef casings of butcher. Make a filling of fat, flour (using one-third cup fat to one cup flour) and chopped onions. Season well with salt and pepper, cut them in short lengths, fasten one end, stuff and then fasten the open end. If they are not already cleaned the surface exposed after filling the casing is scraped until cleaned after having been plunged into boiling water. Slice two large onions in a roasting-pan, and roast the kischkes slowly until well done and well browned. Baste frequently with liquid in the pan.

Tomato Soup

Take a large soup bone or two pounds of soup meat, the latter preferred, one or two onions, a few potatoes, a few carrots, a turnip, soup greens and a can of tomatoes or a quart of fresh ones, cook two hours, and in season add two ears of sweet corn grated. Season with salt and pepper.

Thicken with a tablespoon of flour, dissolved in cold water. A nice addition to this soup is a handful of noodles cut into round disks with a thimble.

Thursday, February 5, 2009

Borsht

Take some red beetroots, wash thoroughly and peel, and then boil in a moderate quantity of water from two to three hours over a slow fire, by which time a strong red liquor should have been obtained. Strain off the liquor, adding lemon juice, sugar, and salt to taste, and when it has cooled a little, stir in sufficient yolks of eggs to slightly thicken it. May be used either cold or hot. In the latter case a little home-made beef stock may be added to the beet soup.

If after straining off the soup the remaining beetroot is not too much boiled away, it may be chopped fine with a little onion, vinegar and dripping, flavored with pepper and salt, and used as a vegetable.

Celery Relish

Boil about six pieces of celery root. When soft, peel and mash. Season with salt, pepper, a little onion powder, a teaspoon of home-made mustard and plenty of mayonnaise. Shape into pyramids, put mayonnaise on the top of the pyramid, and on top of that either a little well-seasoned caviar or some sardellen butter shaped in a pastry bag. Serve on a slice of beets and a lettuce leaf.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Pie Crust (Merberteig)

Rub one cup of butter to a cream, add four cups of sifted flour, a pinch of salt and a tablespoon of brown sugar; work these together until the flour looks like sand, then take the yolk of an egg, a wine-glass of brandy, one-half cup of ice-water and work it into the flour lightly. Do not use the hands; knead with a knife or wooden spoon, knead as little as possible. If the dough is of the right consistency no flour will be required when rolling out the dough. If it is necessary to use flour use as little as possible. Work quickly, handle dough as little as possible and bake in a hot oven. Follow directions given with Fleischig Pie Crust. Fat may be substituted for butter in the above recipe.

White Cake

Cream three-quarters cup of butter and one and one-quarter cups of sugar very well. Stop stirring, pour one-half cup of cold water on top of butter mixture and whites of eight eggs slightly beaten on top of water; do not stir, add one teaspoon of vanilla. Sift two and one-half cups of pastry flour, measure, then mix with two heaping teaspoons of baking-powder, and sift three times. Add to cake mixture and then beat hard until very smooth. Turn into ungreased angel cake pan, place in slow oven. Let cake rise to top of pan, then increase heat and bake until firm. Invert pan, when cool cut out.

Boiled Corn Beef

Put corned beef into cold water; using enough to cover it well; let it come slowly to the boiling-point; then place where it will simmer only; allow thirty minutes or more to each pound. It is improved by adding a few soup vegetables the last hour of cooking.

If the piece can be used a second time, trim it to good shape; place it again in the water in which it was boiled; let it get heated through; then set aside to cool in the water, and under pressure, a plate or deep dish holding a flat-iron being set on top of the meat. The water need not rise above the meat sufficiently to wet the iron. When cooled under pressure the meat is more firm and cuts better into slices.

Cabbage is usually served with hot corned beef, but should not be boiled with it.

Spatzen

Beat one egg well, add one-half teaspoon of salt, three-fourths cup of flour and one-third cup of water, stirring to a stiff, smooth batter. Drop by teaspoons into boiling soup ten minutes before serving.

Polish Salad

Lay half a dozen or more large salt pickles in water for about six hours, then drain off all the water. Chop up two sour apples, one large onion or two small ones, chop the pickles and mix all thoroughly in a bowl and sprinkle over them a scant half teaspoon of pepper (white) and a tablespoon of sugar (either white or brown), adding a pinch of salt if necessary.

Pour enough white wine vinegar over all to just cover. Do not make more at a time than you can use up in a week, as it will not keep longer.

Jerusalem Artichoke

This vegetable is in season in the fall and spring, and may be cooked like kohl-rabi and served in a white cream or sauce. The artichoke may also be cooked in milk.

When this is done, cut the washed and peeled artichoke into cubes, put in a stew-pan, and cover with milk (a generous pint to a quart of cubes). Add one small onion and cook twenty minutes. Beat together one tablespoon of butter and one level tablespoon of flour, and stir this into the boiling milk. Then season with one teaspoon of salt and one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, and continue the cooking one-half hour longer. The cooking should be done in a double boiler. The artichoke also makes a very good soup.

Asparagus

Cut off the woody part, scrape the lower part of the stalks. Wash well and tie in bunches. Put into a deep stew-pan, with the cut end resting on the bottom of the stew-pan. Pour in boiling water to come up to the tender heads, but not to cover them. Add one teaspoon of salt for each quart of water. Place where the water will boil.

Cook until tender, having the cover partially off the stew-pan. This will be from fifteen to thirty minutes, depending upon the freshness and tenderness of the vegetable. Have some slices of well-toasted bread on a platter. Butter them slightly.

Arrange the cooked asparagus on the toast, season with butter and a little salt and serve at once. Save the water in which the asparagus was boiled to use in making vegetable soup.

Pot Roast

Heat some fat or goose fat in a deep iron pot, cut half an onion very fine and when it is slightly browned put in the meat. Cover up closely and let the meat brown on all sides. Salt to taste, add a scant half teaspoon of paprika, half a cup of hot water and simmer an hour longer, keeping covered closely all the time. Add one-half a sweet green pepper (seeds removed), one small carrot cut in slices, two tablespoons of tomatoes and two onions sliced.

Two and a half pounds of brisket shoulder or any other meat suitable for pot roasting will require three hours slow cooking. Shoulder of lamb may also be cooked in this style.

When the meat is tender, remove to a warm platter, strain the gravy, rubbing the thick part through the sieve and after removing any fat serve in a sauce boat.

If any meat is left over it can be sliced and warmed over in the gravy, but the gravy must be warmed first and the meat cook for a short time only as it is already done enough and too much cooking will render it tasteless.

Pan Roast Beef

Take a piece of cross-rib or shoulder, about two and one-half to three pounds, put in a small frying-pan with very little fat; have the pan very hot, let the meat brown on all sides, turning it continually until all sides are done, which will require thirty minutes altogether. Lift the meat out of pan to a hot platter, brown some onions, serve these with the meat.

Pressed Chicken

Boil one or more chickens just as you would for fricassee, using as little water as possible. When tender remove all the meat from the bone and take off all the skin. Chop as fine as possible in a chopping bowl (it ought to be chopped as fine as powder). Add all the liquor the chicken was boiled in, which ought to be very little and well seasoned.

Press it into the shape of a brick between two platters, and put a heavy weight over it so as to press hard. Set away to cool in ice-chest and garnish nicely with parsley and slices of lemon before sending to the table. It should be placed whole upon the table, and sliced as served. Serve pickles and olives with it. Veal may be pressed in the same way, some use half veal and half chicken, which is equally nice.

Deviled Brains

Put one tablespoon of fat in skillet, and when hot add two tablespoons of flour, rub until smooth, and brown lightly, then add one-half can of tomatoes, season with salt, pepper, finely-chopped parsley, and a dash of cayenne pepper, and the brains which have previously been cleaned, scalded with boiling water, and cut in small pieces. Cook a few minutes, and then fill the shells with the mixture. Over each shell sprinkle bread crumbs, and a little chicken-fat. Put shells in pan and brown nicely. Serve with green peas.

Sauces

Melt two tablespoons of butter and stir in two tablespoons of flour. Add carefully one cup of boiling water, then season with one-half teaspoon of salt and a dash of pepper and paprika.

Many sauces are made with drawn butter as a foundation. For caper sauce add three tablespoons of capers.

For egg sauce add one egg, hard-boiled and chopped fine.

Jewish Method of Frying Fish

Scale the fish with the utmost thoroughness, remove the entrails, wash very thoroughly, and salt both inside and out. Then cut the fish into convenient slices, place them on a strainer and leave them there for an hour.

Meanwhile, place some flour in one plate and some beaten eggs in another, and heat a large frying-pan half full of oil or butter. Now wipe your fish slices thoroughly with a clean cloth, dip them first in flour and then in beaten eggs and finally fry until browned.

In frying fish very hot oil is required. If a crumb of bread will brown in twenty seconds the oil is hot enough. Put fish in a frying basket, then into the hot oil and cook five minutes. Drain on brown paper and arrange on platter. Do not stick knife or fork into fish while it is frying.

When the oil has cooled, strain it, pour it into a jar, cover it and it will be ready for use another time. It can be used again for fish only.

To Clean Fish

The fish may be cleaned at the market, but needs to be looked over carefully before cooking.

To remove the scales hold the fish by the tail and scrape firmly toward the head with a small sharp knife, held with the blade slanting toward the tail. Scrape slowly so that the scales will not fly, and rinse the knife frequently in cold water. If the fish is to be served whole, leave the head and tail on and trim the fins; otherwise remove them.

Noodles

Beat one large egg slightly with one-fourth teaspoon of salt, add enough flour to make a stiff dough; work it well for fifteen or twenty minutes, adding flour when necessary. When the dough is smooth place on slightly floured board and roll out very thin and set aside on a clean towel for an hour or more to dry. Fold in a tight roll and cut crosswise in fine threads. Toss them up lightly with fingers to separate well, and spread them on the board to dry. When thoroughly dry, put in a jar covered with cheese cloth for future use. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup, ten minutes before serving.

Noodles for vegetables or for puddings are made in the same way, but to each egg, one-half egg-shell full of cold water may be added. The strips are cut one-half inch wide.

Consomme

Take three pounds of beef, cut in dice and cover with three quarts of cold water. Simmer slowly for four hours. The last hour add one-half cup each of carrots, celery, onion, and season with one-half teaspoon of peppercorns and one tablespoon of salt.

Strain, cool, remove fat and clear (allowing one egg-shell broken fine and the slightly beaten white of one egg to each quart of stock). Add to the stock, stir constantly until it has reached the boiling point. Boil two minutes and serve.

Schalet or Tscholnt (Shabbas Soup)

Wash one pint of white haricot beans and one pint of coarse barley and put them into a covered pot or pan with some pieces of fat meat and some pieces of marrow bone, or the backs of two fat geese which have been skinned and well spiced with ginger and garlic. Season with pepper and salt and add sufficient water to cover. Cover the pot up tightly. If one has a coal range it can be placed in the oven on Friday afternoon and let remain there until Saturday noon. The heat of the oven will be sufficient to bake the Schalet if there was a nice clear fire when the porridge was put in the oven. If this dish cannot be baked at home it may be sent to a neighboring baker to be placed in the oven there to remain until Saturday noon, when it is called for. This takes the place of soup for the Sabbath dinner.

Canapes

For serving at the beginning of dinner and giving a zest to the appetite, canapés are extremely useful. They may be either hot or cold and made of anything that can be utilized for a sandwich filling. The foundation bread should be two days old and may be toasted or fried crouton fashion. The nicest way is to butter it lightly, then set it in a hot oven to brown delicately, or fry in hot fat.

The bread should be cut oblong, diamond shaped, in rounds, or with a cutter that has a fluted edge. While the toast is quite hot, spread with the prepared mixture and serve on a small plate with sprigs of watercress or points of lemon as a garnish.

Another way is to cut the bread into delicate fingers, pile it log-cabin fashion, and garnish the centre with a stuffed olive. For cheese canapés sprinkle the toast thickly with grated cheese, well seasoned with salt and pepper. Set in a hot oven until the cheese melts and serve immediately.

Rules for Kashering

In the religious and dietary laws of the Jewish people, the term "kasher" is applied to the preparation of meat and poultry, and means "to render fit" or "proper" for eating.

1. To render meat "fit" for food, the animal must be killed and cut up according to the Jewish method of slaughter, and must be purchased from a Jewish butcher.

2. The meat should be put into a pan, especially reserved for this purpose, entirely covered with cold water, and left to soak for half an hour. Before removing the meat from the water every particle of blood must be washed off. It should then be put upon the salting board (a smooth wooden board), placed in a slanting position, or upon a board with numerous perforations, in order to allow the blood to freely flow down. The meat should then be profusely sprinkled on all sides with salt, and allowed to remain in salt for one hour. It is then removed, held over a sink or pan, and well rinsed with cold water three times, so that all the salt is washed off. Meat left for three days or more unsoaked and unsalted, may be used only for broiling over coals; it may not be cooked in any other way.

The ends of the hoofs and the claws of poultry must be cut off before the feet are _kashered_.

Bones with no meat or fat adhering to them must be soaked separately, and during the salting should not be placed near the meat.

3. The liver must be prepared apart from the meat. It must be cut open in both directions, washed in cold water, and broiled over the fire, and salted while it is broiling. It should be seared on all sides. Water must then be poured over it, to wash the blood away. It may then be used in any manner, as the heat has drawn out the blood. Small steaks and chops may be _kashered_ in the same way.

4. The heart must be cut open, lengthwise, and the tip removed before being soaked, so that the blood may flow out. The lungs likewise must be cut open before being soaked. Milt must have veins removed.

5. The head and feet may be _kashered_ with the hair or skin adhering to them. The head should, however, be cut open, the brain taken out, and _kashered_ separately.

6. To _kasher_ suet or fat for clarifying, remove skin, and proceed as with meat.

7. Joints from hind-quarters must not be used, until they have been "porged," which means that all veins of blood, forbidden fat, and prohibited sinew have been removed. In New York City no hind-quarter meat is used by orthodox Jews.

8. All poultry must be drawn, and the inside removed before putting in water.

Cut the head off and cut the skin along the neck; find the vein which lies between the tendons, and trace it as far back as possible; at the back of the neck it divides into two branches, and these must be removed.

Cut off the tips of the wings and the claws of the feet. Proceed as with meat, first cutting open the heart and the liver. Eggs found inside of poultry, with or without shells, must be soaked and when salted be placed in such a position that the blood from the meat does not flow upon them. Such eggs may not be eaten with milk foods.

In conducting a kosher kitchen care must be taken not to mix meat and milk, or meat and butter at the same meal.

The utensils used in the cooking and serving of meat dishes may not be used for milk dishes. They should never be mixed.

Only soaps and scouring powders which contain no animal fat are permitted to be used in washing utensils. Kosher soap, made according to directions for making hard soap, may be used in washing meat dishes and utensils.

To follow the spirit as well as the letter of the dietary laws, scrupulous cleanliness should always be observed in the storing, handling and serving of food.

It is very necessary to keep the hands clean, the flours and cereals clean, the ice-box clean, and the pots and pans clean.

Preface

In compiling these recipes every effort has been made to bear in mind the resources of the Jewish kitchen, as well as the need of being economical and practical.

The aim throughout has been to lay special emphasis on those dishes which are characteristically Jewish--those time-honored recipes which have been handed down the generations by Jewish housewives (for the Sabbath, Passover, etc). But the book contains a great many other recipes besides these, for the Jewish cook is glad to learn from her neighbors. Here will be found the favorite recipes of Germany, Hungary, Austria, France, Russia, Poland, Roumania, etc.; also hundreds of recipes used in the American household. In fact, the book contains recipes of every kind of food appealing to the Jewish taste, which the Jewish housewife has been able to adapt to the dietary laws, thus making the Cook Book truly _International_.

The manner of presentation is clear and simple, and if directions are followed carefully, will insure success to the inexperienced housewife. For the book has been largely planned to assist her in preparing wholesome, attractive meals; to serve the simplest as well as the most elaborate repast--from appetizer to dessert--without transgressing the dietary laws. At the same time the book offers many valuable suggestions and hints to the most expert cook.

In this book are also directions for making meat substitutes and many economies of the hour, which have been added to meet the needs of the present day.

About the Author

The author and compiler, Mrs. Florence K. Greenbaum, is a household efficiency woman, an expert Jewish cook, and thoroughly understands the scientific combining of foods. She is a graduate of Hunter College of New York City, where she made a special study of diet and the chemistry of foods. She was Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science in the Young Women's Hebrew Association of New York, and is now Instructor and Lecturer for the Association of Jewish Home Makers and the Central Jewish Institute, both under the auspices of the Bureau of Jewish Education (Kehillah).

Mrs. Greenbaum knows the housewife's problems through years of personal experience, and knows also how to economize. Many of these recipes have been used in her household for three generations and are still used daily in her home. There is no one better qualified to write a Jewish Cook Book than she.